Being a fastest growing economy, India has a huge requirement of energy in forthcoming year. To accomplish its major requirement India has to
import approximately its 73% of petroleum. In recent time government is playing an active role in promoting the adoption of renewable energy sources.
Renewable energy is becoming increasingly cost competitive as compared to fossil fuel based energy generation. The government has set a target of 175 GW
renewable power installed capacity by the end of 2022. This includes 50 GW from wind power, 100 GW from solar, 5GW from small hydro power and 10GW
from biomass power. The biomass based energy sources for the next three year 2016-17 (500 MW), 2017-18 (750 MW) and 2018-19 (850 MW) have been set to
utilize maximum potential of biomass based renewable energy (MNRE, 2016).
Types of Bio-Energy
Bioenergy is an efficient option among all existing fuels including solid, liquid and gaseous forms in modern era of technology and in group termed as biofuel. All forms of biofuel like solid (such as fire wood, wood chips, briquettes, pallets, charcoal etc), liquid (such as bioethanol, biodiesel, butanol, bio oil etc) and gaseous (such as biogas, producer gas, syn-gas biohydrogen etc) forms have been intensively researched and produced.
Bioenergy technologies could contribute significantly to reductions in green house gas emissions, and they are unique in their potential to serve all three areas of major energy demand: heat, electricity, and transport fuel and chemicals. The well established bioenergy technology mainly emphasised on biogas, bioethanol, biodiesel and producer gas.
Biogas is a flammable gas produced by the degradation of organic matter by the microorganisms in anaerobic environment. It mainly composed of CH4 (60-70%) and CO2 (30-35%), H2S, moisture etc. The combustible part of biogas is methane, which varied in concentration with substrate and other optimized conditions. As the biogas is well suited technology at industrial level and frequently used for the treatment of industrial waste, municipal waste and sewage wastewater is now used as feedstock. During the last decades with development of technology the biogas can be effectively used as vehicle fuel in internal combustion engine and electricity generation.
Biodiesel is a yellowish liquid produced by the transesterification of triglycerides of some lipid contain substrates such as plant seeds, vegetable oils and animal fats. It reacts with monohydric alcohols in the presence or absence of base or acid catalysts or enzymes to obtain biodiesel. In this reaction, the fatty acids of the triglycerides are converted to the corresponding ester, which is called Fatty Acid Alkyl Ester (FAAE). This FAAE is commonly known as biodiesel. This FAAE is commonly known as biodiesel. When methanol is used as the monohydric alcohol, then the resulting fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) is the biodiesel.
Biodiesel is considered as a possible substitute of conventional diesel fuel. It is quite similar to conventional diesel fuel in its main characteristics (Biodiesel is produced mainly from soybeans. Other sources of commercial biodiesel include canola oil, animal fat, palm oil, corn oil, waste cooking oil and seeds of plants like Neem, Mahua, Karsnja, simarouba jatropha etc and from microalgal oil
Bioethanol is ethanol, produced from vegetative biomass through fermentation. Biomass used for bioethanol production includes food crops and lignocellulosic biomass (forests lashes, crop residues, yard trimmings, food processing waste, and municipal organic refuses.) are currently main feedstock. On the basis of feedstock used for ethanol production it is divided in first, second and third generation biofuel (IEA, 2015).
Commercial bioethanol is currently produced from starch/ sugar-based crops including sugar cane, sugar beet, sweet sorghum, corn, wheat, barley, potato, yarn, and cassava. One commercially-practiced technology is to produce ethanol by fermenting plant biomass derived simple sugars (i.e., glucose, fructose, and other monosaccharides). The problem lies with the use of this biomass for ethanol production is it’s pretreatments to obtain simple sugars that are bind with hemicellulose and lignin. Research has been intensively conducted to develop effective pretreatment methods for obtaining simple sugars from lignocellulosic materials such as sweet sorghum, Cassava, elephant grass, suger beets etc.
Producer gas is produced by the partial combustion or gasification of dry biomass in a gassifire. In gassifire the dry biomass is burnt with a control air flow so that combustible gas with composition of CO, H2, CH4, moisture can be produced.
The producer gas so produced has a low calorific value (1000-1200 Kcal/Nm3), but can be burnt with a high efficiency and a good degree of control without emitting smoke. Each kilogram of air-dry biomass (10% moisture content) yields about 2.5 Nm3 of producer gas. In energy terms the conversion efficiency of the gasification process is in the range of 70%-80%. The produced gas is passed through the some cleaning & cooling equipments like scrubbers and filters then clean gas is used for thermal application or IC engine application or direct used in furnace for heating, cooking, water boiling, steam generation, drying, electricity generation etc.
Bioenergy a clean future fuel
Biomass based fuels are renewable and sustainable sources of energy which contribute towards upliftment of energy, environment, expansion, and economics of a country. This resource has huge potential to prevent the carbon and other harmful emissions entering in the atmosphere from industries and petroleum based vehicles. We can save lots of carbon to enter in the environment, simply by switching from petroleum based fuel to bio-based fuel as our primary source of transportation fuel. Different resources such as forestry, agricultural, and aquatic sources have been vigorously explored as the feedstock for the production of various types of biofuels such as bioethanol, biogas, biohydrogen, biodiesel, and bio-oil. The use of biofuels has helped us to mitigate climate change, reduce the dependence on fossil fuels, and decrease risks to life and land and has provided a safe and competitive energy source.
The state of Utter Pradesh is one of the major states of India. Its most of people have agriculture as livelihood resource. It has an estimated area of 2.42 cr hectare. It comprises 16.60 lakh hact forest area, 4.57 lakh hact land comprises user and unsuitable for agriculture, 4.19 lakh hectare grassland, 4.16 lakh hact shrubs, 17.05 lakh hact barren land and 1.66 cr hact shown area. Out of this, the major part of land which is not suitable for agriculture and other agricultural related practices can be used for cultivation of bioenergy crops/plants. In view of this, the UP state Bioenergy Development Board has been established in 2016. The board has aim to promote bioenergy based and climate resilient agricultural practices in the state of Utter Pradesh.